کتاب تفکر سریع و کند

اثر دانیل کانمن از انتشارات در دانش بهمن - مترجم: فروغ تالوصمدی-علمی

کتاب پرفروش تفکر، سریع و کند دانیل کانمن، روانشناس و برنده نوبل اقتصاد، خلاصه تحقیق اوست که با همکاری آموس تورسکی بیش از چند دهه به آن مشغول بوده است. این کتاب شامل سه بخش از مراحل کاری اوست: کارهای اولیه، یعنی سویه گری های شناختی، سپس نظریه چشم انداز و پس از آن پژوهش هایی در زمینه شادی است. محور اصلی کتاب دوگانگی میان حالت اندیشه است: سیستم دو آهسته تر، خودخواسته تر و منطقی تر است، در حالی که سیستم یک سریع، غریزی و احساسی است. این کتاب ترسیم سویه گیری های شناختی در ارتباط با هر نوع تفکر است که با پژوهش های خود کانمن درباره نفرت از باخت آغاز می شود. این کتاب، با پشتوانه چند دهه پژوهش های دانشگاهی، نشان می دهد که افراد، با تغییر چارچوب پرسش و جایگزین کردن پرسش های ساده تر، در حقیقت به قضاوت های انسانی اهمیتی بیش از حد می دهند. کانمن، با شرح کارکرد دو سیستم، تلاش می کند نشان دهد که چه وقت می توانیم در تصمیم گیری های مربوط به زندگی و تجارت به بینش و شهودیات خود اطمینان کنیم و چه زمانی از آن بپرهیزیم و با شیوه شناخت سویه گری های ذهنی چگونه می توانیم از اشتباهات اجتناب کنیم. این کتاب برنده جایزه بهترین کتاب آکادمی ملی علوم و جایزه کتاب لس آنجلس تایمز و برگزیده منتقدان کتاب نیویورک تایمز به عنوان یکی از ده کتاب سال 2011 شناخته شده است.


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Reading @Thinking, Fast, and Slow@, ....(book choice for this months local book club),
was not exactly bedtime reading for me.

I had already pre- judged it before I started reading... ( certain I would discover Im a FAST
INTUITIVE - type thinker ... ( quick, often influenced by emotion). Once in awhile I use
basic common sense - logic --(not often)--
just being honest! I rather trust my gut!

I understand this is an intellectual -giant- of - a -book about @How we think@.
@Thinking deeply about how we think@, hasnt changed me, transformed me,
or enlighten me. Not so far.

This book is pretty technical. I understand the author is brilliant --but I found myself skimming pages--
However, what I understood - I did enjoy.

Kahneman has a great talent at being a slow, rational, logical, and reflective thinker.
However, fast thinking, intuitive thinking, is more influential in what experience tells us he says---being contrary to the belief that we are very rational-decision making people.

I still believe this book is incomplete ...
I think their are other ways in speaking about the way our minds work - that is not found in this big book.

However, Our author says we have two ways of thinking: (OK?/!).....

1) Two basic systems of thinking:
System 1 is the intuitive, quick, thinking
System 2 is the slowest rational logical and reflective thinking

.....20% of our Energy goes into our brain.
.....We tend to be lazy thinkers. ( lazy controller he calls it), and do not involve our slow thinking brain and less it is needed.
...... A running theme in the book is that although the brain does contain a statistical
algorithm, it is not accurate. The brain does not understand basic normal distribution.
...... Our brain often jumps to conclusions.
...... Our brain knows how to answer easy questions, like @what did you have for breakfast@?...
but it is more challenging to answer the question, @how do you feel about yourself today@?
......We have biases
...... Often stereotypes will override statistics. ( again providing we have influential, lazy judging brains)
....... He talks about predictions. For example, if a child gets great grades in the lower grades of school... We often tend to over estimate our ability to predict the future.
...... When it comes to intuition versus formulas ... Often the formula does win.
..... We also are incline to expect regularity much more in our lives and really exist.

You wont find any data in this book about @The Power of Now@ thinking, or discussion about
@You are not your Mind@, Chakras, or myths about healing ...
but its a book about THE WAY WE THINK... (technical.. some of it I resonated with- but when it got too scientifically technical, he lost me).

I look forward to my book club discussion- 25 people will be attending this month- (many bright people)... Im sure to gain value and more insights.





مشاهده لینک اصلی
I read this several years ago, and catching up now to put pen to page.

All games players should read the first half or so of this book. As I read it, page after page was covered in notes, yes no really? but....

What Kahneman discusses in this book is something weve all known in a less rigorous way, perhaps - the intuitive and the analytical paths to decision making and action.

Two Systems


Psychologists have been intensely interested for several decades in the two modes of thinking evoked by the picture of the angry woman and by the multiplication problem, and have offered many labels for them. I adopt terms originally proposed by the psychologists Keith Stanovich and Richard West, and will refer to two systems in the mind, System 1 and System 2.

System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control.

System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration.

The labels of System 1 and System 2 are widely used in psychology, but I go further than most in this book, which you can read as a psychodrama with two characters.

Surely you chess and bridge players are already sitting up and paying attention. We all know about that psychodrama. He continues:
When we think if ourselves, we identify with System 2, the conscious, reasoning self that has beliefs, makes choices, and decides what to think about and what to do. Although System 2 believes itself to be where the action is, the automatic System 1 is the hero of the book. I describe System 1 as effortlessly originating impressions and feelings that are the main sources of the explicit beliefs and deliberate choices of System 2. The automatic operations of System 1 general surprisingly complex patterns of ideas, but only the slower System 2 can construct thoughts in an orderly series of steps. I also describe circumstances in which System 2 takes over, overruling the freewheeling impulses and associations of System 1. You will be invited to think of the two systems as agents with their individual abilities, limitations, and functions.

Of course this hasnt been written with game players in mind, and you may, like me, find yourself disagreeing with some of the ideas here. For a start, System 1 is based on the infinite hard work of System 2. As far as playing games go, you arent born with S1, it grows and improves because of S2. However, it is definitely food for thought and may help clarify aspects of how you are thinking and how you might address issues.

Educational and sometimes astonishing when it comes to how bad we humans are at dealing with data. There is a chapter dealing with Linda.  Its quite incredible to see that around 90% of undergrads at major universities (I assume US), when presented with details leading to this:

rest here: https://alittleteaalittlechat.wordpre...

مشاهده لینک اصلی
A long book that requires real mental exertion, Thinking, Fast and Slow is a worthwhile read by Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman. It delves into the two complex systems of the mind. System 1 is impulsive, emotional, and often led astray, while System 2 is rational, thoughtful, and takes more time to makes decisions. He analyzes how humans use (and sometimes fail to use) both systems, and the resulting implications on topics ranging from how we perceive happiness to behavioral economics.

Thinking, Fast and Slow is one of the most in-depth Psychology books Ive read. I fell in love with the subject after taking AP Psychology last year as a junior in high school, and am currently craving more books and articles related to the field. Daniel Kahneman satisfied my thirst. I had a solid understanding of some concepts beforehand, like the confirmation bias and hindsight bias, but had never heard of other terms like base rate or the illusion of validity. The sheer amount of statistics and experiments referenced throughout the book proved Kahnemans thoroughness and dedication.

I recommend Thinking, Fast and Slow to anyone who wants to learn about how we think, or about psychology in general. I liked how Kahneman progressed from simple ideas like heuristics to more complex concepts, like prospect theory. Even if you have no background in psychology or economics, a mere interest in either should suffice for this book.

*review cross-posted on my blog, the quiet voice.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
“I giudici più esperti del tribunale della libertà vigilata israeliano sono fortemente influenzati dal proprio appetito nel momento in cui prendono la decisione se dare la libertà o no a un condannato. Per quanto la cosa appaia crudele e assurda, la statistica dice che i giudici concedono la libertà vigilata in percentuali molto più basse lontano dai pasti, rispetto a quando hanno lo stomaco pieno.”

Secondo Kahneman, premio Nobel per l’economia nel 2002, il pensiero umano funziona in base a due processi decisionali: uno, veloce e immediato, è inconsapevole, intuitivo e costa poca fatica. L’altro, lento e razionale, è consapevole, usa ragionamenti deduttivi e richiede fatica e concentrazione.

Noi ci illudiamo di prendere le decisioni solo dopo una riflessione attenta, in realtà è soprattutto l’intuizione che controlla la nostra vita. Il problema non è che questo avvenga, quanto il fatto che spesso non ce ne rendiamo conto, rinunciando ad usare la nostra razionalità. In parole povere tendiamo a fidarci dell’intuizione anche quando un pizzico di razionalità ci porterebbe grandi benefici.

Un libro molto interessante, scritto in maniera impeccabile, divulgativo e quindi comprensibile a tutti, mai superficiale o noioso. Uno dei migliori libri del suo genere.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Definitivamente o melhor livro sobre comportamento, cérebro e economia. Uma revisão ótima do tema por um dos pesquisadores que fundou e desenvolveu a área, que toma o cuidado de citar vários outros trabalhos e livros a cada capítulo, o que só enriquece.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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